ORAL MEDICINE : Infectious mononucleosis in children and adults: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Infectious diseases are very common. People have to deal with them. One such disease is infectious mononucleosis. 

A fifth of the population are carriers of DNA containing the herpes virus that causes the disease. 

mononucleosis-children

Many people suffer from mononucleosis mild form, which is difficult to diagnosed. 

The incubation period can last from several days to two months. After the disease in the body developed antibodies. Learn how to recognize a mononucleosis in adults and in children, than to treat and what safety precautions should be observed?

Causes of infectious mononucleosis

The viral causative agent of mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr, named after the scientists who discovered it. In the environment the virus dies quickly, it exists only in the human body. The transmission of this infectious disease is possible only by airborne droplets through close contact with a virus carrier or infected person. Medics have the name of the disease mononucleosis – «kissing disease». Passed with particles of saliva through the household items, an infectious pathogen continues its «journey».

The symptoms and signs of disease

The disease mononucleosis is recorded year-round, but especially the increase in the number of cases in the spring-fall. During this period, decreased immunity, the body is weakened, symptoms of mononucleosis appear brighter. How to define them in the child and adult? Are they different? Learn about the first signs of an infectious disease, which manifest themselves to the day 5-8 after infection, to prevent complications of the disease.

In children

Signs of disease in children:
  • lethargy, turning into weakness, drowsiness;
  • the gradual increase in body temperature to 39 C and above;
  • body aches;
  • swollen lymph nodes in the neck, sometimes in the groin;
  • sore throat similar to sore throat, with white coating, enlargement of the tonsils;
  • runny nose, difficulty breathing;
  • swelling of the face;
  • severe swelling of the posterior wall of pharynx covered with mucus;
  • a small skin rash;
  • in the acute stage of the disease – enlarged liver and spleen.

Diagnosis

At the first suspicion of the doctor at infectious disease that is caused by a virus Epstein-Barr, the patient is sent to the laboratory of the clinic for delivery immunofluorescence analysis of blood. If atypical mononuclear cells in the blood are detected – the patient will be confirmed diagnosis of the disease mononucleosis. When the disease changes the blood. There is an increase in lymphocytes and monocytes.

For completeness, assign a modern ultrasound of the liver and spleen. Increase their size above normal, increased echogenicity talks about the correct diagnosis. Careful, detailed study and deciphering blood tests will help not to confuse cytomegalovirus, Virus Epstein-Barr, which have very similar external symptoms.

Treatment of infectious mononucleosis

To treat such serious infectious diseases as mononucleosis, should only by a qualified doctor. Chronic mononucleosis in adults treated according to the same scheme as that child. Adhering to the recommendations of the doctor, the patient must strictly follow the prescribed by a doctor not to provoke deterioration. General recommendations during the acute period of the disease mononucleosis, medication and advice aimed at strengthening the immunity system:
  • drinking plenty of fluids;
  • salt-free diet №5, eliminating spicy, fatty, fried;
  • gargling warm herbal infusions, antiseptic;
  • antiviral drugs in severe complications – «Acyclovir», «intron A», «Interferon»;
  • antipyretic drugs: «Ibuprofen», «Paracetamol»;
  • vitamins B, C, P, as supporting the immune system;
  • the prescription of antibiotics is not desirable, unless absolutely necessary, a certain group can cause anaphylactic shock and death.


Possible complications and consequences

In light of the information about viral mononucleosis is to say about the women planning pregnancy. To protect themselves and their future offspring, it is mandatory to go through a full range of laboratory tests in the clinic or women’s clinic. In the case where the expectant mother gets sick of viral mononucleosis, pregnancy may be interrupted at any time, with complications for the entire body.

If at the time will be able to carry a child, in most cases, children are born with disabilities, both physical and mental. In infectious disease of the future mother or family members, should pass not less than one year, to increase the likelihood of healthy offspring. Mononucleosis during pregnancy can have very serious and irreparable consequences.

When the disease enters a severe stage, the patient may be hospitalized. Young children are also better treated in the territory of the hospital under round-the-clock supervision of doctors. After the mononucleosis lymph nodes may remain enlarged for several weeks after recovery. For six months, a minimum of three times to give the control common blood and biochemistry, to avoid possible complications in the liver.

An incorrect treatment of the spleen increases to a large size, infiltrate macrophages. A rupture of the tissues, leading to death. A weak immune system during infectious diseases may cause secondary infection infection. In the form of complications of the disease are: pneumonia, otitis media, tonsillitis, sinusitis, abscess of the throat. The syndrome of mononucleosis weakened when the body attracts to itself and other infections. Violation of liver function, anemia occurs, but rarely.

Methods of prevention

For diseases like mononucleosis, which hurt many, and some more than once, the strict framework of prevention do not exist. Restorative activities, such as adherence, personal hygiene, proper rest, proper nutrition, will help to transfer viral disease easier, even if there is an infection. Special attention should be paid to young children and women who are at the stage of adding the family.