Macroglossia is a rare condition in pediatric patients; however, when present, there are significant symptoms such as airway obstruction, difficulty feeding and aesthetic deformities.
The first report of macroglossia was a description of oral lymphatic malformation, in 1854, by Virchow and Uber.
There are many causes of macroglossia in children, which are divided into true and relative. The true cause occurs when histological abnormalities correlate with the clinical findings of tongue enlargement.
Vascular malformations, muscle hypertrophy and tumors are the most common causes of true macroglossia.
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Relative macroglossia includes all cases in which histology does not explain the pathological condition. Down syndrome is the main cause of relative macroglossia.
Several treatments have been suggested for patients with significant symptoms and surgery is the most indicated therapy by means of varied procedures.
°Surgical management of macroglossia in children: two case reports
°Maurício Macedo / Karine Furtado Meyer