In the last three decades, a significant decrease in caries prevalence has been observed, especially in developed countries.
However, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) continues to be a crucial public health problem in the deprived communities with low economic standards.
ECC is an acute, rapidly developing dental disease occurring initially in the cervical third of the maxillary incisors, and eventually destroying the crown completely.
Early onset and rampant clinical progression make ECC a serious public health problem.
Due to varying clinical, etiological, localization, and prognostic features, this pathology is found under different names such as, labial caries (LC), caries of the incisors, nursing bottle mouth, rampant caries (RC), nursing bottle caries (NBC), nursing caries, baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD), early childhood caries (ECC), rampant infant and early childhood dental decay, and severe early childhood caries (SECC).
Generally, ECC affects the maxillary primary incisors immediately after the eruption of teeth and spreads over the other primary teeth quickly, causing early tooth lost.
Despite a few confusing results, the children who develop caries at an early age run a high risk of further caries development in the primary dentition, and are more likely to develop caries in the permanent dentition.
This foresight may be a vital advantage in determining the patients at a high risk of caries, and in advising the individual on special preventive practices in early ages.
This is especially true in our country, which has a substantial rural area without any established and economical dental system.
The children with caries in the early primary dentition develop significantly more lesions on the permanent teeth, especially the first molars, compared to caries-free children of the same age group.
Children with ECC also have a much greater probability of subsequent dental caries, both in the primary and in the permanent dentitions.
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